When you’ve mastered natural light for your close-ups, try exploring more specialized, flash-based macro-lighting systems. Closer and more easily aimed than the sun, camera-mounted macro flashes are very bright, allowing you to set the small apertures that deliver deep depths-of-field and sharp subjects. As mentioned, because close-focusing macro lenses produce very shallow depths-of-field, the use of smaller midrange apertures can be a godsend when used with bounced or diffused flashes. Another perk: Flashes used at low power settings have lightning-like flash durations that can keep a wind-blown flower, skittish insect, or hopping toad sharp. Speaking of skittish insects, Valentine recommends setting your macro flashes to the manual mode, because a TTL pre-flash can send your subject into flight before the shutter has had a chance to open.