The other factor in purging film, in North Carolina and elsewhere, has been cost. It's harder than ever to pay for darkroom photography materials, given the shrinking budgets of publicly funded college systems. Time constraints have also driven analog photography out of associate's degree-granting programs and professional schools. Hallmark Institute of Photography in Turners Falls, Massachusetts, is one example. Exclusively career-oriented, it offers a 10-month intensive curriculum that would probably be impossible without the immediate visual feedback provided by digital capture and printing. "We train students on what they're going to find when they enter the working world," says Lisa Robinson, director of education at Hallmark. "They're not likely to encounter darkrooms. And in terms of teaching, digital lets students see their results right away, so that the lesson registers more quickly."