Weddings. When the clothes are traditional (bride in white, groom in black), where do you turn for a good exposure reading? Meter off a gray card. No 18% gray handy? Get really close, take a reading off the bride's skin, then back up and shoot.
Big Family Dinners. Use the widest lens you have, get on a stepladder, and bounce the flash off the ceiling.
Food. Shoot down onto the plate. Chances are the chef put the dish together from that point of view for the best angle.
Sunsets. Forget the sunset itself! You've seen that shot before. Turn around-the rich sunset light on buildings, its reflections on clouds, and the shadows it creates are much more interesting.
Q: What's the thinking behind making f-stop values in reverse order to the lens opening sizes?
A: F-stops are the ratio of focal length divided by the diameter of the physical opening of the aperture. So a small opening and/or long focal length makes a bigger number; a big opening and/or short focal length makes a smaller number.