This image was taken a long zoom lens at f/5.6. As a result the image looks "compressed".
3. Distance Matters Here’s another experiment: Focus your longest lens on a distant group of large objects—mountains, buildings, trees—and take a shot. Now switch to a normal focal length, and without changing the position of the camera, shoot again. On your computer, blow up the distant detail in the photo from the normal lens. Surprise: The perspective will match that of the tele shot.
The telephoto perspective of “compressed” distant objects— seeming stacked or layered on top of one another—isn’t produced by focal length but by objects all being relatively far from the camera. Your eye sees distant subjects this way, too, but you tend not to pay attention to it.
Teles let you capture this kind of perspective without having to enlarge the image—and risk losing image quality in the process. By allowing you to back up from your subjects, they also let you take tight facial portraits without exaggerating features like noses.
TIP: When working a landscape, don’t count on your naked eye to discern distant picture ops. Instead, scan the horizon through a long lens—lots of compositions will reveal themselves to you.